• Ophthalmology

    Several antibodies have been repurposed for use in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab/Avastin®, Ranibizumab/Lucentis®) and anti-TNF-ꭤ (Infliximab/Remicade®, Adalimumab/Humira®) therapies have been quite successful in treating neovascularization and inflammation in the eye. Many other fully-human and Fc engineered antibodies against amyloid beta peptides and cytokines are currently under development for better efficacy.

  • Asthma

    Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lower respiratory tract caused by multiple underlying pathological factors. Exacerbations can be triggered by allergens causing severe episodes. Omalizumab/Xolair® is the first mAb drug approved for severe asthma, which targets IgE and inhibits the allergic cascade. MAbs against other targets in the eosinophil maintenance pathway, such as IL-5 (Mepolizumab/Nucala®, Benralizumab/Fasenra®, and Reslizumab/Cinqaero®) and IL-4Rα (Dupilumab/Dupixent®) have also been approved, with numerous others under clinical trials.

  • X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    XLH is an X-linked dominant form of rickets with a defective PHEX gene. This results in overactivity of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), leading to hypophosphatemia. Burosumab (Crysvita®) targeting FGF23 is the first-in-class drug approved for the treatment of this disease.

  • Migraine

    Migraine is characterized by severe throbbing pain which could be episodic or chronic. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilator that is known to play a role in the pain process in migraines. The anti-CGRP antagonistic mAbs, Erenumab (Aimovig®), Fremanezumab (Ajovy®), and Galcanezumab (Emgality®) have been recently approved for the prevention of migraine attacks.

  • Neurodegenerative Disorders

    The extracellular accumulation of amyloid betapeptides (Aβ) has been found to be a causative factor of dementia in many neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. Many anti-Aβ mAbs such as Solanezumab and Bapineuzumab are currently under phase II/III clinical trials.

  • Substance Abuse

    Immunopharmacotherapy is the latest therapeutic strategy that focuses on blocking the drugs before they reach the central nervous system, rather than treating the drug effects on the brain. A fully human anti-cocaine antibody, GNCgzk, has shown promising results in clinical trials for the treatment of cocaine dependency and cocaine-induced acute toxicities. MAbs against other substances including nicotine, PCP, and methamphetamine have also demonstrated potential efficacy in animal models.

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